Sphenoid sinus infections

            Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the sphenoid sinus can secondarily involve the sella and parasellar regions. Pyogenic and fungal infections can extend through the thin bone at the skull base to produce an epidural abscess. Extension into the cavernous sinus can lead to cranial nerve palsies, cavernous sinus thrombosis and carotid artery occlusion. Some of the fungal infections, such as aspergillosis and mucormycosis, are particularly aggressive and have a propensity to extend along vascular structures, leading to cerebral infarction and abscess formation. The combination of sphenoid sinus and intracranial involvement on plain and contrast-enhanced scans is the key to making the diagnosis. 

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