More common anomalies of the external

& middle ear

Atresia/stenosis of the EAC (tympanic ring dysplasia/aplasia) - atresia plate with fusion of neck of malleus to plate & variable development of ossicles and middle ear cavity.

First (mandibular) branchial arch dysplasia - maldevelopment of the malleus, incus& mandible

Second (hyoid) branchial arch dysplasia - maldevelopment of the stapes and footplate, styloid process and superior cornu of the hyoid bone; also anterior migration of the facial nerve canal within the petrous bone.

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